1 // Lesson one

Types of actions

In Islamic religious practice, human actions are divided into five types:

First: Obligatory acts (wajib) that are obligatory rather than prohibited. For the performance of obligatory acts, a person is rewarded, and not performing them entails punishment. For example, performing daily prayers, fasting in the month of Ramadan.

The second: Forbidden actions (haram), the commission of which is prohibited and entails punishment. For example, drinking alcohol, lying.

The third: Desirable deeds (Mustahab) for the performance of which there is a reward, and not the performance of which is punished. For example, performing the desired night prayer, charity.

Fourth: Unwanted actions (makruh), the commission of which is frowned upon, but not punished. For example, it is undesirable for a traveler to perform the collective prayer following a person who is not a traveler.

Fifth: Permissible actions (mubah) for the commission or non-commitment of which there is neither reward nor punishment. For example, walking, sitting.

Taqleed (Observance)

The word “taqlid” is translated from Arabic as imitation and passage. In Islamic religious practice, the word “taqlid” refers to Muslims following the instructions (fatwas) of an authoritative religious jurist (mujtahid) who has reached the highest levels of Sharia knowledge, as well as practical imitation of him in the performance of religious rites.

Rule 1 – It is not permissible for any Muslim to imitate in the basic tenets of the religion, in the foundations of faith, which include monotheism, justice, prophethood, imamate, and resurrection. Each person must be convinced of their truth. But in the secondary (practical) provisions of religion, such as prayer, fasting, zakat, hajj, etc., should a Muslim either be a mujtahid (a religious jurist capable of extracting the correct Sharia provisions from reliable sources) and act according to his knowledge, or if he is not a religious jurist, follow the instructions of a religious jurist. Just as ordinary people who do not have knowledge in any field always turn to authoritative specialists.

In addition to the above, a Muslim can perform his religious duties based on caution, that is, perform them in such a way that he has confidence in the correct performance of his duties. For example, if some religious jurists consider any action forbidden and some as permissible, then, based on caution, he should refrain from committing this action. Or, if some religious jurists consider any action desirable, and others consider it obligatory to perform, then he must necessarily perform this action. But since the implementation of religious rites, based on caution, is not such an easy task, and requires the possession of a sufficient level of knowledge in Sharia sciences, then most Muslims must follow the instructions of a religious jurist.