The hero of Ashura is a symbol of freedom

Husain ibn Ali ibn Abu Talib, known as Abu Abdallah and Imam Hussain, the second child of Imam Ali and her majesty Fatimah, the third Shia Imam who died in Karbala, and one of those whom the Prophet (pbuh) covered with his cloak and called “People houses”. The Prophet called him and his brother Hasan the leaders of the young inhabitants of paradise. In the battles of “Jamal”, at Siffin and Nahrawan, he fought on the side of his father. During the Imamate of Hasan, he was a follower of his brother, and until the death of Muawiyah, he remained loyal to the truce concluded by Hasan and Muawiyah. But after the death of Muawiya, he did not swear allegiance to his son Yazid, as he considered his appointment illegal. Having accepted the offer of the people of Kufa to lead the Islamic state, he left Mecca for Kufa. However, the Kufis treacherously killed him along with a group of his companions (72 people) in Karbala, and other followers and members of the House of the Prophet were captured and sent to Kufa and the Levant (Maket).

The killing of Imam Husayn (a) in Karbala played a defining role in the history of Islam, especially in the first centuries of Islamic history. His life and death coincided with one of the most difficult periods of the first century. It was a period of opposition to the injustices of the Umayyad rulers. Therefore, his name is associated with such concepts as “rebellion” and “martyrdom”, and he is considered the inspirer of many subsequent uprisings against oppression and injustice. The impact of the tragedy of Ashura on all levels of Shiite society was reflected over many centuries in various forms in art and literature.

Preposition of the name

According to a Shia tradition, Allah commanded the Prophet to name the newborn Husayn before his parents chose a name for him. Therefore, he announced to everyone: “I have been ordered to name these two sons of mine Hasan and Husain.” He also said: “Harun named his sons Shabar and Shubair, and therefore I will name Hasan and Husayn (as) just as Harun named his sons.” It is reported that the name of Imam Husayn (a) is mentioned in the Torah as Shubair, and in the Gospel as Tab.

Some traditions indicate that the names Hasan and Husayn were the names of the inhabitants of Paradise, and that before the advent of Islam, no one used them to name their children.

According to Ibn Sa’d], the Prophet asked Umm Fadl, the wife of Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib, to become a nurse for Husayn (a). Thus, Husayn (a) became the foster brother of Qasm ibn Abbas, who was his age.


Imam Husayn’s pen name was Abu Abd-Allah. The prophet called him that from birth. This is stated in almost all sources. However, Husaybah ]points out that he had the kunya of Abu Ali for people especially close to him. He also had other martyrs, in particular, Abu Ash-Shuhad (Father of Martyrs), Abu Al-Ahrar (Father of the Free), Abu Al-Mujahideen (Father of Warriors).


Imam Husayn had many nicknames, most of which were given even earlier to his brother Imam Hasan. His most famous ones were Zaky (Pure), Tayyib (Good), Wafi (Faithful), Saeed (Lord), Mubarak (Blessed), Nafd (Beneficial), Hell-Dalil ala zat Allah (Proof of the existence of God), Rashid (Smart), At-Tabi-mardat Allah (Seeking God of Abundance) and “Sayyid Shubab Ahl al-Jannat” (Lord of the Young Dwellers of Paradise) is the most important. Traditions say that he was also called “Shahid” (Martyr) and “Sayyid al-Shuhada” (Lord of Martyrs).


Imam Husayn was born in Medina. Some say that he was born in the third year of the Hijra, while others say that he was born in the fourth. Most historians and hadith scholars follow the second option. Scientists also disagree about the date of his birth. According to the opinion of the majority, he was born on the 3rd of Shaban (January 8, 626).


Imam Husayn (a) was killed on 10 Muharram 61 of the lunar Hijra (10 October 680) in Karbala (Iraq). Historians disagree about the day of the week for this event. Some write that it happened on Friday, others say that on Saturday, Sunday or Monday. But still the majority adhere to the fact that this tragedy happened on Friday. Abu al-Farah Isfaghani writes that it is popularly believed that Monday was the day of the killing of Imam Husayn (a), but according to the calendar, this version does not correspond to reality. Historians write that Imam Husayn (a) died at the age of 56 years and 5 months, 57 years and 5 months, 57 or 58 years.

To the Imamate at the prophet

Imam Husayn (a) was still a child when the noble Prophet left this world. But at the same time, he participated in important historical events along with other members of the House of the Prophet. For example, he was a direct participant in such events as “Mutual Cursing with Christians of Najran”, “Cloaking”, “Oath of the Prophet”.

Ibn Sad counts Imam Husayn among the fifth generation of the Prophet’s companions, who were children during his lifetime and did not participate in battles and battles. Imam Husayn was about 6 years and 8 months old when the Prophet left the world. He always enjoyed the special love of his grandfather. The Prophet is reported to have said: “Indeed, Hasan and Husayn are the two masters of the young inhabitants of Paradise.” Yala Amiri narrates that the Prophet said: “Husain is from me and I am from Hussain. Whoever loves Allah will love him. Hasan and Husayn – two descendants of the prophets”.

It is reported that Salman Farisa said: “Once the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) made Husayn sit on his lap, kissed him and said: “You are great, the son of the great and the father of the great. You are an imam, the son of an imam and the father of imams. You are the proof of Allah, the son of the proof of Allah and the father of the proofs of Allah, of whom there will be nine, and the last of them is Qaim.

Salman also narrates: “The Prophet said: ‘Salman, whoever loves them loves me, and whoever loves me loves Allah.’ Then he put his hand on Husayn’s shoulder and said: “He is an Imam, the son of an Imam and the ancestor of nine pure, faithful and blameless Imams, the last of whom is Qaim.”

The Messenger of Allah said: “Hasan and Husayn are my children. He who loves, he loves me, and he who loves me, Allah loves him, and he who loves Allah, he will enter Paradise. Whoever hates them hates me, and whoever hates me hates Allah, and whoever hates Allah will go to hell.”

Abu Huraira reports that the Prophet said: “Whoever loves these two sons of mine loves me, and whoever is at enmity with them is at enmity with me.”

The Prophet loved Husayn so much that when he entered the mosque, he would come down from the pulpit to him without finishing his sermon to hug and kiss him. Anas ibn Malik narrates that when the Prophet was asked which of his family he loved the most, he replied, “Hasan and Husayn.”

The era of the three caliphs The era of Abu Bakr

Imam Husayn (a) spent about 25 years of his life during the era of the rule of three caliphs – Abu Bakr, Umar and Uthman. He was seven years old when the first caliph was elected, nine when the second was elected, and nineteen when the third was elected. The reign of Abu Bakr was a diverse period for the members of the Prophet’s House. On the one hand, they were in mourning for the death of the Messenger of Allah, and on the other hand, they were oppressed by disputes about who should become the caliph. It is said that at the beginning of the reign of Abu Bakr, Imam Husayn, together with his brother Imam Hasan and his parents, went at night to the companions of the Prophet, who participated in the battle of Badr, with the demand to help Imam Ali to become the caliph, as this legal right belonged to him.

The era of Umar

We have very little information about the life of Imam Husayn (a) during the reign of Umar. Perhaps the reason for this lies in the fact that at that time Imam Ali withdrew from public affairs and led a secluded lifestyle with his family. Some traditions indicate that at the beginning of the reign of Umar, Imam Husayn entered the mosque, and at that time Umar was giving a sermon from the pulpit of the Prophet, and, approaching him, said: “Get down from the pulpit of my father and go to the pulpit of your father!” To which a surprised Umar replied: “My father did not have a pulpit.” Then he lifted Imam Husayn to him and seated him next to him. When Umar finished his sermon, he led Husayn home and asked him, “Son, who taught you this?” To which Husayn (a) replied: “No one taught me.”

The era of Usman

Imam Husayn was 19 years old when Uthman became caliph. Some Sunni authors write that Imam Husayn participated in some Islamic conquests during the era of Uthman. For example, he fought alongside his brother Hasan, Abd Allah ibn Abbas, Umar Ibn and Ibn Zubair under the command of Sa’id ibn As in the Battle of Tabaristan.

When Uthman sent Abu Zarra to Rabza and forbade anyone to escort him, Imam Husayn disobeyed the caliph and went out to escort him along with his father Imam Ali, brother Imam Hasan, uncle Aqeel ibn Abu Talib, cousin Abd Allah ibn Jafar and Ammar ibn Yasir.

Broadness of outlook, socio-political wisdom and the ability to separate the wheat from the chaff were the distinguishing qualities of the Prophet’s family. That is why when the rebels rose up against Uthman ibn Affan and went to his house to kill him, Imam Hasan and Imam Husayn, on the orders of their father, stood up for the caliph, even though they did not agree with his policies. It was difficult to resist the rebels, and they eventually killed the caliph, but the command of the father and the protection of some values ​​of the society stood above everything.

The reign of Imam Ali

Imam Husayn (a) participated in the Battle of Jamal, as well as the battles of Siffin and Nahrawan, which took place during the reign of Imam Ali. In the battle of Siffin, he even gave a speech, inspiring the soldiers to holy war.

Imam Ali appointed Imam Husayn as the custodian of endowments and waqfs after Imam Hasan. It is reported that when Imam Ali died, Imam Husayn was in Mada’in on his behalf. Having learned about his father’s death from Imam Hasan’s letter, he immediately appeared for the burial ceremony.

The reign of Imam Hasan

During Imam Hasan’s (a) Imamate, which lasted about ten years, and his Caliphate, which lasted only six months, Imam Husayn (a) was always by his side. After the death of Imam Ali, his son Imam Hasan (a) became the head of the Islamic state, and Imam Husayn swore allegiance to all his brothers. After that, he played an active role in mobilizing and sending troops to the front of Nuhaila and Maskan, and also went with Imam Hasan to

Mada’in and Sabat to mobilize the army in the field.

According to reliable sources, when the truce was concluded between Imam Hasan and Muawiyah, some supporters of the people of the Prophet’s house proposed not to recognize this political truce and rebel against Muawiyah. But Imam Husain categorically rejected this proposal, fully supported his brother’s decision and swore allegiance to Muawiyah. And when Qays ibn Sa’d asked why he had done so, Imam Husayn openly told him his vision of the state of affairs. After the truce, he returned with his brother from Kufa to Medina, and stayed there to live.

Arguments in favor of his Imamate

The saying of the Prophet (pbuh) “These two sons of mine are leaders (imams), whether they rebel or not” clearly indicates the right of Hasan and Husayn to the Imamate. We have also received other narrations, according to which after Imams Ali Hasan and Husayn, nine more Imams will be born, and all of them will be descendants of Imam Husayn. Another argument is Imam Hasan’s (a) will that Imam Husayn (a) be his vicegerent and his order to Muhammad Hanafiyeh to follow him in everything. Based on these narrations, Mufid claims that the right of Imam Husayn (a) to the imamate is clear and obvious, despite the fact that Imam Husayn himself did not encroach on the imamate for the sake of maintaining peace in the Islamic state. However, after the death of Muawiya and the non-compliance of the main terms of the truce by the opposing side, Imam Husayn (a) openly announced his right to the imamate.

The imam must have a perfect command of religious knowledge and life wisdom. Therefore, Imam Ali asked Imam Husayn to preach before the people with sermons like Imam Hasan, so that in the future the Quraysh would not accuse him of ignorance. The statement of the companions of the Prophet that people always turned to Imam Husayn for difficult matters, which is the best proof that he possessed exceptional knowledge. In order to be even more convinced of Husayn’s imamate, one can turn to his speeches and authentic reports of his miracles.

The period of the reign of Muawiyah
Imam’s policy towards Muawiyah

After the death of Imam Hasan (a), the most worthy candidate for the post of Muslim ruler was Imam Husayn (a). But he remained faithful to the truce treaty concluded by his brother with Muawiyah. And when the people of Kufa wrote him a letter urging him to revolt, he rejected the proposal, although he considered the rule of Muawiyah illegitimate and himself called for a struggle against the tyrants, but postponed it until the death of Muawiyah. He, in turn, feared the rebellion of Imam Husain, and therefore, after the death of Imam Hassan, he appealed to Husain not to rebel, to which the Imam replied that he was still faithful to the concluded truce.

During the reign of Muawiya, Imam Husayn (a) limited himself to expressing disagreement with some actions of the ruler and defending his opinion, but no more, because the socio-political situation in the caliphate did not predispose to more. And when his supporters urged him to rebel, he answered them: “Today I hold a different point of view. May Allah have mercy on you. Tie yourself to the earth, hide in the houses and while Muawiyah lives try not to arouse suspicion. If God takes away him to me, and I will be alive at this time, then I will write you my opinion.”

Very often, people close to Muawiya accused Imam Husayn (a) of preparing a rebellion, and therefore every time Muawiya wrote letters with an appeal to maintain the fidelity of the concluded truce, to which the Imam replied that he had no plans and the ruler had nothing to worry about . During this period, Imam Husayn criticized those close to Muawiyah, especially Marwan ibn Hakam, for their provocative actions.

Also at this time, Imam Husain was engaged in explaining the principles of the imamate and the caliphate, the characteristics of a true caliph. The most important actions of the Imam in this regard were his preaching in the valley of Mina during the Hajj and the secret meetings in Mecca.

during the ten years of Husayn’s imamate, there was a correspondence between him and Muawiyah, which fully reflects the Imam’s position on Muawiyah. So, for example, every action of Muawiyah, which, from the point of view of Imam Husayn, did not correspond to the laws of Islam, was sharply condemned and criticized by him.

Taking active steps to transfer power to his son Yazid, Muawiya made a trip to Medina to enlist the support of the local population, and especially the elite, led by Imam Husayn. Having met with Husain, he began to discuss with him the issue of transferring power to Yazid, and tried to get the Imam’s consent. But he expressed his disagreement in a sharp way, listing to Muawiyah all the shortcomings of his son, which did not allow him to become the head of the Islamic state. He was one of the few who did not swear allegiance to Yazid, and strongly condemned Muawiya’s actions.

Muawiya’s policy towards the Imam

Muawiyah, like the first three caliphs, had great respect for Imam Husayn (a), knowing that he held a special place in the hearts of the people of Mecca and Medina, and that he should not be treated like other people. But at the same time, the Imam was an obstacle to his absolute power, and he feared his rebellion. That is why he used the “whip and gingerbread” policy towards the Imam. T

ak, on the one hand, he gave him special honor and ordered his subordinates not to show him disrespect. But on the other hand, he established total surveillance on him. Imam was watched day and night. All his actions in personal and public life were known to Muawiyah in minute detail. Moreover, he wanted Imam Husayn (a) to feel this surveillance, and knew that his every move was known to the ruler, so as to keep the Imam from the idea of mutiny and rebellion. Considering the position of Imam Husayn (a), he even instructed his son Yazid to treat him politely and not to force him to take an oath.

The period of the reign of Muawiyah

Before leading the Islamic state, Yazid became famous for his love of idle time. He went to such an extreme in this respect that even Muawiyah condemned him. Therefore, some Muslims were very surprised when Muawiya appointed him as his successor, and did not want to accept it. In order to somehow justify his actions, he sent his son in 51 AH [105] to Mecca at the head of the pilgrims of the Levant. But during this trip, Yazid could not give up drinking, and arranged a feast upon his arrival in Medina.

In the 52nd year of the lunar Hijra, Yazid went to Byzantium at the head of the Levantine army on the orders of Muawiyah. But when the warriors entered the Byzantine soil, Yazid along with his wife Umm Khulsum stopped in a town called Dayr Murran and indulged in leisure activities. And when he was told that the army had been struck by the plague and had suffered great losses in Gazkazun, he declared that it did not bother him much. Upon learning of this, Muawiya became enraged and ordered him to immediately join the army. Arriving at his soldiers, Yazid went with them to Constantinople. However, he did not succeed in conquering this city, and he was forced to return back. Ibn Abbas, Abd Allah ibn Zubair and Abu Ayyub Ansari among others also participated in this battle.

Although the majority of Muslims, including the Prophet’s senior companions, were against Yazid’s appointment as crown prince, Muawiya insisted and eventually the people swore allegiance to him in 56 AH.

The political situation during the era of Yazid’s rule

The short period of Yazid ibn Muawiya’s reign was very turbulent from a political point of view. During the three years and several months that Yazid was in power, he was mostly involved in suppressing rebellions within the Islamic state. During this time, he nixed any manifestation of resistance in the most severe way. The total pressure of the state apparatus reached the point that the famous historian Masudi wrote “The life of Yazid was similar to the life of Pharaoh. Moreover, Pharaoh was more fair to his flock and more conscientious to his relatives and common people. In the first year of his reign, he killed Imam Husayn and the members of the Prophet’s household. In the second year he desecrated the shrine of the Messenger of Allah (Medina), allowing his soldiers to brawl in it for three days. In the third year of his reign, he attacked the Kaaba and burned it.”

Yazid’s actions set the stage for many of the troubles that later befell the Umayyad dynasty, eventually leading to its fall from power.

Imam’s reaction to Yazid’s actions Speech from Medina

“The imam is the one who acts according to the Koran, administers justice and considers God as his guardian” Muawiya died in May 680 in Damascus. At that time, Yazid lived in Khavarin. When he arrived in Damascus, the people swore allegiance to him, and he immediately wrote to the governor in Medina, Walid ibn Utbah: “Do not release Husayn ibn Ali, Abd Allah ibn Umar, and Abd Allah ibn Zubair until they swear to me.” Then the governor of Madinah turned to Marwan ibn Hakam for advice, and he said: “Before the people know about the death of Muawiyah, invite Abd Allah ibn Zubair and Husayn ibn Ali to you, and if they swear, then the matter is settled, and if not, then shaving their heads. Because if they do not swear and the people learn of the death of Mu’awiyah, they will rally around them and then great trouble will begin. As for Abd Allah ibn ‘Umar, he is not a supporter of rebellion unless the people themselves will transfer power into hands”. Following this advice, Walid sent for Abd Allah ibn Zubayr and Husayn. Arriving at the mosque, the messenger told them that the governor wanted to see them. They sent the messenger back and told him to convey that they would soon come to the governor. Left alone, Ibn Zubayr asked Husayn:

– Why does he want to see us?

“I think Mu’awiyah is dead and Walid wants us to take the oath before the people know about it,” Husayn said.

– I think so too, – said Abd Allah. – How will you act?

– I will go to the governor, – said Husain. – But in order to protect myself, I will take a few of my people with me and leave Walid at the door. If it comes to a fight, they will help me.

Husain went to Walid. After informing him of Muawiyah’s death, the governor asked him to swear an oath to Yazid. But Husain answered him:

– A person like me will not swear to secrecy. Invite people, including me, and