The great Islamic scholar Al-Farabi

The ruler Sayf al-Tisnu provided a house in Aleppo for Al-Farabi, known in Latin as Alpharabius. Abu Nasr ibn Muhammad ibn Tarkhan ibn Uzlag al Farabi was born in Wasit, near Farabi, in 256-257 according to the Hijra, and in 870 according to the Gregorian calendar, in the yurt of a warrior from the Turkic Kipchak tribe.

his father lived near Otrar and was one of the guards who guarded the approaches to this city. When his father became one of the military leaders and moved to Otrar, settling near the library, young Muhammad began to visit the library often, becoming fascinated by books. He helped scientists rewrite treatises, became a brilliant calligrapher …

In the harsh days for Otrar, the young scientist was always close to his father. After the death of his father, he took his place, but did not become a real commander. The attractive power of science turned out to be stronger. ​

His native language was then called Qumransky. But in order to penetrate the secrets of many books, it was also necessary to know the language of Arabs and Persians, Latin and Sanskrit. And he easily studied and learned languages, revealing their beauty. He loved music and created his first (or perhaps only) musical instrument – the Kazakh dombra.

Together with the famous translator Abu Bashir, Matta translated Aristotle’s works from Greek into Arabic and Persian. And so that they would be understood by the scientists and philosophers of the East, he wrote his brilliant commentaries on the works of Aristotle, for which very soon he himself began to be called the “Aristotle of the East”, Mughalim.

Traveling, learning about life, studying every new judgment, new treatise on astronomy and medicine, mathematics and philosophy, music and botany, physics and chemistry became the passion of Abunasir Muhammad Al-Farabi.

Scientists of that time very soon became known for his scientific and philosophical rubas and his interpretations, i.e., judgments on the theory of compound words, spelling, and the art of calligraphy. He begins work on the multi-volume Kitab al-Muzika al-Kabir – a treatise on music. Analyzes Euclid’s geometry and writes comments on Ptolemy’s “Almagest”. He becomes a famous astronomer and astrologer in the East, an excellent doctor. He develops the teachings of Hippocrates, and at the same time makes discoveries in mineralogy and physics, creates a treatise on theories of knowledge – “On the Origin of Sciences”.

His treatises: “Pearl of Wisdom”, “Views of the Residents of a Virtuous City” and “Civic Politics” have been studied in the universities of the East for thousands of years. “Views of the inhabitants of a virtuous city”, where, using the social ideas of the ancient East, Farabi developed a coherent theory of social organization. At the head of virtuous cities (al-Madinah al-fazil) are the rulers who act simultaneously as leaders of the religious community.

In virtuous cities, they strive to achieve true happiness for all residents, goodness and justice reign, injustice and evil are condemned. Farabi opposes virtuous cities to uneducated cities (al-Madinah al-jahiliya), whose rulers and residents have no idea of true happiness and do not strive for it, but pay attention only to bodily health, pleasures and wealth.

The requirements of Farabi for those who wish to attain wisdom are of an equally high order: “one who aspires to the origins of the science of wisdom must be of good character, brought up in the best way, study the Koran and the sciences of the Law in the first place. To be prudent, chaste, conscientious, truthful, repelling vice, debauchery, treason, lies, twisting. To be free of mind from the interests of sustenance, approaching the fulfillment of lawful appointments, without violating the pillars of lawful foundations and without violating any of the rules of the Sunnah and the Sharia. Strive for promotion in science and among scientists who do not choose science for the sake of a few achievements and possessions, who do not choose it as a means of acquiring material goods.” The one who pursues other goals, i.e. “submits” to ambition, fame and material goods, changes the very essence philosophy. It is this, that is, the betrayal of a person’s mind and creative abilities – the worst vice, since, as Farabi believes, not the soul of an individual person is corrupted, he speculates on the spirit and sells it, but the whole society – from top to bottom.

Shortly before his death, the great thinker left Damascus – a city that was then in the possession of Sultan Saif Al-tisna. Perhaps Al-Farabi was going to return to his native Otrar, but he was already old and could not, as before, tirelessly follow the ancient dusty roads for caravans.

He treated people – weavers and furriers, caravan drivers and slaves of Harun Al-Rashid. This is despite the fact that he is the former personal physician of the caliph himself, and then of Sultan Saif Al-tisnu. Resting from disputes and work on treatises, he worked with a hoe in his hands, helped people grow gardens and sow bread. As a geographer, he went around Taraz and Jend, Samarkand and Bukhara, Khiva and Herat, Merv and Kabul, Ghazni and Haran, Haleb and Damascus with a staff in his hands, but he could not complete his journey and return to his Otrar.

Al-Farabi died in a small village near Damascus, and the sages of all the eastern cities, his students, read with admiration and admiration inlines of his brilliant treatises – “The essence of questions”, “Substance”, “Time”, “Emptiness”, “About the soul”, “About the mind and concepts” …