Eleventh lesson

11) Imam al-Jawad

Muhammad b. ʿAli b. Musa  known as Imam al-Jawad (a)  was the ninth Imam of Twelver Shia. His teknonym was Abu Ja’far and he is mentioned in haidth sources as Abu Ja’far al-Thani (the second Abu Ja’far). He (a) was born on Rajab 10, 195/April 8, 811 in Medina and was Imam for 17 years. He was martyred when he (a) was 25 years old and was buried in Kadhimiya beside the grave of his grandfather Musa b. Ja’far (a). He was the youngest Imam when he was martyred.

Because Imam al-Jawad was an 8 year old child, some Shi’a followed ‘Abd Allah b. Musa and some others followed Waqifids. But most Shi’a accepted the imamate of Imam al-Jawad (a) due to his scientific superiority in spite of his age.

Scientific debates of Imam al-Jawad (a) in his childhood age with religious scholars of different Islamic sects in theological issues such as the position of caliphs and in jurisprudential issues such as hajj rituals are among well-known debates of Imams (a).

Muhammad b. ‘Ali b. Musa b. Ja’far b. Muhammad is the ninth Imam of Twelver Shi’a who is known as al-Jawad and Jawad al-‘A’imma. His father Imam al-Rida (a) was the eighth Imam of Twelver Shia.His mother was Sabika from the family of Mariya al-Qibtiyya, the wife of the Holy Prophet (s). In some sources, the name of his mother is mentioned as Khayzuran, Nawbiyya and Rayhana.

His most famous title was al-Jawad and they have mentioned other titles for him such as al-Taqi, al-Murtada, al-Qani’, al-Radi, al-Mukhtar, al-Mutawakkil, and al-Muntajab.