17 // Conditions of faithfulness of minor ablution
Ruling 284 – In order for minor ritual ablution (wudu) to be performed correctly, the following twelve conditions must be met:
The first condition: The water must be clean (not contaminated).
The second condition: The water used for minor ablution must be “mutlyak” water (It was said about “mutlyak” and “mudaf” water in paragraph 21). Thus, a minor ablution performed with defiled water or “mudaf” water is invalid, even though the person did not know about it or forgot. And if a person performs a prayer with such a small ablution, then he will need to perform it again.
Ruling 285 – If a person does not have any other water besides mudaf water, then he must perform tayammum. But if this “mudaf” water is water mixed with clay, then, according to the mandatory measure, if he has time before the end of the prayer time, he must wait until the clay settles.
Rule 286 – Third condition: The water used for the minor ablution, the place where the minor ablution is performed, the utensils with which the minor ablution is performed, according to the mandatory measure, must not be illegally acquired. Thus, the validity of minor ablution, which will be performed with assigned water, or water for which it is not known whether its owner agrees that minor ablution should be performed with it or not, is doubtful.
Rule 287 – If the owner of the water previously gave permission to use it for minor ablution, and now the person does not know whether he has revoked his permission or not, the minor ablution performed with such water will be valid.
Regulation 288 – It is doubtful to use water of religious educational institutions for performing minor ablutions, regarding which it is not known whether the water of these institutions is intended for public use or only for students of this institution. But if a person sees that decent and pious people use the water of this educational institution to perform minor ablutions, which indicates the permissibility of public use, then it is allowed to perform minor ablutions with this water.
Rule 289 – If a person does not intend to perform prayer in a mosque, and it is not known whether the water of this mosque is intended for public use or only for those who perform their prayers there, then he has no right to perform minor ablution in this mosque. The same applies to the water of private hotels and inns. That is, if the water in them is intended only for travelers staying in them, then other people do not have the right to perform a small ablution with water in these hotels. Except for cases when a person sees that pious people perform a small ablution in them, indicating the permissibility of public use.
Rule 290 – If a person is not a student of a religious educational institution whose water is intended only for the use of students, but is a guest of those students, he may perform minor ablutions with the water of the said institution. But on the condition that the reception of such a guest does not contradict the terms of the wakf. These provisions also apply to guests of travelers staying in hotels and inns.
Regulation 291 – It is allowed to carry out small washing with water of large and small rivers, even if a person does not know whether the owners of these rivers allow such use of water or not. If the owners of the rivers strictly prohibit the use of water from the rivers, then, according to the mandatory measure, refrain from performing small ablutions with this water. If the course of the river (or branch canal) has been changed without the permission of its owner, then, according to caution, one should refrain from committing a small ablution in it.
Rule 292 – If a person forgets that the water is assigned and makes a small ablution with it, it will be valid. Except for those cases when he himself illegally appropriated water. In this case, the fidelity of a small ablution will be doubtful.
Ruling 293 – If a person assumed that the water was his property, and then, after performing minor ablution, he found out that the given water was the property of another person, then the minor ablution he performed will be valid. But in this case, he must pay the owner the cost of the water he used.
Rule 294 – Fourth condition: According to the obligatory measure, the vessel used for minor ablution should not be made of gold and silver.
Ruling 295 – If there is water available in an assigned, gold or silver vessel, and there is no other water besides it, then in this case it is necessary to perform tayammum. The fidelity of a small ablution performed with such water is doubtful. In this case, there is no difference whether the minor ablution was performed in the usual way or in the “wudu-irtimasi” way. However, it is allowed to pour water from a gold or silver dish into another dish and make a small ablution with it.
Rule 296 – Doubtful faithfulness of a small ablution made with the water of a pool, at least one brick or stone of which is misappropriated. But this applies only to those cases when the use of the water of this pool will be considered the use of assigned property. The same applies to cases where a water faucet or part of a pipe is illegally appropriated.
Regulation 297 – If in the courtyard of the mausoleum one
one of the sinless imams (DBM) or their descendants (in the yard that used to be a cemetery) will build a pool, and if a person does not know whether this yard was intended only for a cemetery and nothing else or not, then it is permissible to perform a small ablution of this pool with water .
Rule 298 – Fifth condition: The parts of the body that are subjected to minor ablution (face, hands, upper part of the head and feet) must be clean of impurities. If after the completion of ablution (or wiping) one part of the body, this particular part is defiled, then the minor ablution will be valid.
Rule 299 – If, in addition to the parts of the body on which minor ablution is performed, another part of the body is defiled, then this is not an obstacle to perform minor ablution. However, as a precaution, the place where urine and faeces exit must be cleaned before performing ablution.
Ruling 300 – If any part of the body on which minor ablution is performed was previously defiled, and after completing the minor ablution a person has a doubt as to whether or not he removed the impurity before performing the minor ablution, then the performed minor ablution will be valid. However, before performing the prayer, this part of the body must be purified, and if it came into contact with any object, then the object must also be purified.
Position 301 – Sometimes a wound appears on the face or hands, from which blood flows without stopping. But, despite this, the water does not harm this wound. In this case, it is necessary to place the face or hand in water with a volume of more than 384 liters, or in running water, or in water from the tap, squeeze the wound so that the blood stopped, and after that do “voodoo-irtimasi” in the way described earlier (item 279). But if the water will be harmful to the wound, then it is necessary to act in accordance with the provisions on performing a small ablution in the presence of wounds, which will be explained further.
Rule 302 – Sixth Condition: There must be sufficient time to perform minor ablutions and prayers. Thus, if there is so little time left before the end of the prayer time that, in the case of minor ablution, the entire prayer (or part of the prayer) will be performed already after the end of the prayer time, then instead of minor ablution, it is necessary to perform tayammum.
Ruling 303 – A person who does not have enough time to perform the prayer with minor ablution must perform tayammum. If in such a situation he makes a small ablution, then it will be invalid. But if he performs a small ablution not for prayer, but for another action, for example, to read the Qur’an, then the small ablution will be correct.
Ruling 304 – The Seventh Condition: Minor ritual ablution (wudu) must be performed with the intention of drawing closer to Allah. Therefore, a minor ablution done hypocritically to expose oneself to others, or to cool the body, or for some other reason, is invalid. If a person acquires a sincere intention to perform a small ablution, obeying the command of Allah and with the intention of getting closer to Him, and in the process of doing it he knows that the body will cool down, then the small ablution is not canceled.
Rule 305 – It is not necessary to say the intention aloud or to yourself. It is enough that if a person is asked: “What are you doing?”, he will know what a little ablution does.
Ruling 306 – If a woman performs minor ablution in a place where men outside can see her, her minor ablution will be valid, but she will commit a sin by doing so.
Rule 307 – Eighth condition: When performing minor ablution, the sequence of its performance must be observed. That is, first the face should be washed, then the right hand, then the left hand, after that the head should be wiped, and then the feet should be wiped. And, according to the mandatory measure, wiping the left foot should not be performed before wiping the right foot.
Rule 308 – Ninth condition: A person should perform minor ablutions in such a way that there is continuity between the acts of minor ablutions. In this case, it will be true even if, as a result of wind or high air temperature, the part of the body that was washed earlier dries up (for example, when washing the right hand, the previously washed face dries up). But if there is no continuity between the actions of minor ablution, that is, there will be a significant time gap between its actions, then it is canceled. Even if the previously washed part of the body dries out as a result of damp weather.
Ruling 309 – It is not forbidden to walk between acts of minor ablution. Thus, if a person, after washing his face and hands, walks a few steps and then wipes his head and feet, then his small ablution will be valid.
Rule 310 – The Tenth Condition: A person must perform a minor ablution himself, that is, he must wash his face and hands himself, and must perform the wiping of his head and feet himself. If someone else performs a small ablution for him, or helps bring water to his face and hands, or helps in wiping his head and feet, then the small ablution performed in this way is canceled. But it is not forbidden to help in the preparatory actions of a small ablution.
Regulation 311 – I