1) Prophet Muhammad
Muḥammad b. ʿAbd Allāh (b. ‘Am al-Fil/571 Mecca – d. 11/632 Medina) is the prophet of Islam, whose mission was essentially the advancement of monotheism and morality. He (s) was also a social reformist and a political leader. He (s) was the last prophet of God, and his major miracle was the Qur’an.
Although the Prophet (s) was born in the polytheistic society of Arabia, he never worshiped any idols. He also avoided the inappropriate manners that were rampant in pre-Islamic Arabia. He (s) was chosen by God as a prophet at the age of forty. Although the polytheists of Mecca persecuted him and his followers for many years, neither he nor his followers gave up following Islam. After thirteen years of preaching in Mecca, he immigrated to Medina. This immigration (Hijra) marked what became the beginning of the Islamic calendar. In Medina, he established an ever-expanding community of believers, the Muslim ummah.
Because of the efforts of the Prophet (s), the pre-Islamic Age of Ignorance ended, and the polytheistic society of Arabia was transformed into a monotheistic society in a short time. Towards the end of the Prophet’s (s) life, almost everyone in the Arabian Peninsula had converted to Islam. The number of Muslims has continued to grow ever since, and Islam is now the fastest-growing religion globally.
The Prophet (s) enjoined his followers to adhere to the teachings of the Qur’an and the Ahl al-Bayt (a). He designated Imam ‘Ali (a) as his successor on various occasions throughout his life, including the event of Ghadir.