20 // Regulations on great ablution
Proposition 373 – Performing a great ritual ablution is itself a desirable act. But for the performance of prayers, circumambulation of the Kaaba during Hajj and ‘Umrah, and for other similar actions, having a great ablution is obligatory. The presence of a great ablution is not necessary for performing the prayer for the deceased, grateful prostration, for performing the prostration after listening to the Koranic verses, which were mentioned in paragraph 371. All these actions are allowed to be performed without the presence of a great ritual ablution. However, it will be better if a person performs a great ablution to perform the prayer for the deceased, grateful prostrations and similar actions.
Ruling 374 – The great ritual ablution (ghusl) must be performed with the intention of drawing closer to Allah and submitting to His command. It is not necessary to say the intention out loud or about yourself.
Ruling 375 – If a person is convinced that the time for the prayer has come, and as a result performs a great ablution, and then it becomes known that the time for the prayer has not yet arrived, then the great ablution he performed will be valid. Also, if he performs ablution with the intention of performing the obligatory prayer, and then it turns out that the time for its performance has already passed, then the performed ablution will be valid.
Ruling 376 – The obligatory and desirable great ritual ablution (ghusli) can be done in two ways: the usual way and the “ghusli-irtimasi” way.
Ruling 377 – The usual way of performing the great ablution is as follows. After acquiring the intention to perform ablution, one must first completely wash the head and neck, then completely the right part of the body, then completely the left part of the body (according to the obligatory measure). If on purpose, or as a result of forgetfulness, or due to ignorance, this order of performing a great ablution is not followed, then it will have to be done again.
Ruling 378 – The right half of the umbilical cavity and genitals must be washed when washing the right side of the body, and the left half when washing the left side of the body. However, it will be better if the umbilical cavity and genitals are completely washed the first time when washing the right side of the body, and the second time when washing the left side.
Rule 379 – In order to be sure that all three parts of the body (head and neck, right part, left part) are completely washed, during the washing of each part, it is necessary to wash a little of the areas of the other part of the body. And, according to the desired caution, it is better to wash the right side of the neck when washing the right side of the body, and the left side of the neck when washing the left side of the body.
Proposition 380 – Sometimes after completing a great ablution, a person finds that a certain area of his body remains unwashed. If the unwashed part is on the left side of the body, then it will be enough for him to wash only this part of the body. But if there is an unwashed area on the right side of the body, then it is necessary to wash it, and then, according to caution, it is necessary to re-wash the entire left part of the body. And if the unwashed area is on the head or neck, then it is necessary to wash it, and then it is necessary wash the entire right side of the body again and then the entire left side of the body.
Ruling 381 – If, after completing the great ablution, a person has a doubt as to whether all parts of the body have been properly washed or not, then he should not attach importance to his doubt.
Ruling 382 – Performing ablution in the Ghusli-irtimasi manner is as follows. After acquiring the intention to perform a great ablution, the body should be completely immersed in water (immediately or gradually), with the condition that the water completely covers all parts of the body at one time. For example, diving into a pool or placing the body under a large stream of water. It should be noted that in a city shower it is impossible to perform a large ablution using the “gusli-irtimasi” method.
Ruling 383 – If a part of a person’s body is outside the water, and then, with the intention of performing a great ablution, he immerses his body completely in the water, then the great ablution performed in the gusli-irtimasi way will be correct. But if the whole body will be under water and the person will only move it, then the fidelity of the great ablution will be doubtful.
Ruling 385 – When performing a great ablution in the gusli-irtimasi way, one must raise the feet from the bottom so that the water washes the lower part of the feet.
Ruling 386 – If a person does not have enough time to perform ablution in the usual way, then he should perform it in the Ghusli-irtimasi way.
Rule 387 – If a person performs obligatory fasting, or is in the state of “Ihram” during Hajj and ‘Umrah, then, according to the obligatory measure, he should not perform extensive ablution in the manner of “Ghusli-irtimasi”. Since in the state of “ihram” and during fasting, it is forbidden to immerse the head in water. But if he forgets about this prohibition and performs “Ghusli-irtimasi”, then the great ablution will be valid, and this will not affect the faithfulness of fasting and Hajj.
Rule 388 – While performing a great ablution in the usual way, one may enter and exit the water three times. In the first year
az with the intention of washing the head and neck, the second time with the intention of washing the right side of the body, and the third time with the intention of washing the left side of the body.
Rule 389 – When performing a great ablution in the gusli-irtimasi way, the whole body must be clean of impurity (according to an obligatory measure). But during a great ablution in the usual way, it is not necessary for the whole body to be clean. In this case, it is allowed to clean the spitted part of the body immediately before washing it.
Ruling 390 – It has been said in the previous chapters that a person’s sweat, canceling a major ablution by performing a prohibited act, is not bad, and he may perform a major ablution with hot water. However, it will be better if he does it with water of a moderate temperature, so that no sweat breaks out while doing it. Despite the fact that this sweat is not bad, still, according to an obligatory measure, one should not perform prayer in clothes on which this sweat is present.
Ruling 391 – If even a small part of the body remains unwashed when performing a major ablution, then the major ablution will be invalid. However, it is not necessary to wash the internal surfaces, for example, the nasal cavity, etc.
Rule 392 – During the great ritual ablution, all objects that prevent water from entering the body must be removed from the human body. If a person reasonably anticipates that there is some obstacle on his body for the penetration of water to the skin, then he should examine his body to make sure that it is not.
Ruling 393 – Short hair must be completely washed when performing ablution, as it is considered part of the body. And also, according to a mandatory measure, it is necessary to completely wash long hair.
Ruling 394 – The conditions mentioned in the chapter on the minor ritual ablution (for example, the water must not be defiled) are also the conditions for the faithfulness of the major ritual ablution. it is necessary to observe continuity in washing parts of the body. That is, you can first wash the head and neck, and then, after some time, the right and left parts of the body. But this does not apply to sick people who involuntarily emit urine or feces. These people must successively perform a great ablution and immediately start performing the prayer. This provision also applies to women with vaginal discharge (istihada).
Rule 395 – In some cases extensive ablutions in the baths have to be performed. If a person is not going to pay off the bath attendant, or wants to wash himself on credit, not knowing whether the bath attendant agrees to it or not, then, according to the mandatory measure, the large ablution he has performed will be invalid. The same applies to cases when he intends to pay the bathhouse with prohibited money, or money from which khums has not been paid.
Rule 396 – If a person spends a large amount of water in the bath (more than usual), then the fidelity of the large ablution will be doubtful. Except for the cases when he originally intended to pay the bather for the large amount of water used.
Rule 397 – If a person has a doubt as to whether he has performed a great ablution or not, then he must perform it. But if, after completing the great ablution, he doubts whether he has performed it correctly or not, then he need not pay attention to the doubt that has arisen.
Ruling 398 – If a person releases urine, faeces, or intestinal gases during a major ritual ablution (ghusl), then the major ablution will be valid. But in order to perform prayer and similar actions, he will need to perform a small ablution (wudu).
Ruling 399 – If a person has had his ablution voided, and he performed his prayers for a while, and then he doubts whether he performed ablution before performing his prayers or not, then the prayers he performed will be valid. But in order to perform the following prayers, he needs to perform a great ablution.
Rule 400 – Several obligatory ablutions (or obligatory and desirable ablutions) can be performed at one time. For example, it is permissible to perform one large ablution with the intention of performing large ablutions after intimacy, after menstruation, and after touching a corpse.
Ruling 401 – After each large ablution (ghusl) performed, one can immediately perform prayer, and it is not necessary to perform small ablution (wudu) for this. It does not matter whether the great ablution was performed after intercourse or for some other reason, whether it was obligatory or desirable. However, in order to perform the prayer, it is desirable to perform a small ablution after a large ablution, in addition to a large ablution performed after intimacy or ejaculation. That is, it is not necessary to perform a small ablution after a large ablution, which occurs after intimacy or the release of semen.