2 // Lesson two

Provision 2 – The essence of “taqleed” is reliance on the direction of a religious jurist, that is, the performance of all practical religious rites in accordance with his instructions (fatwas).

Provision 3 – The religious jurist (mujtahid) whose instructions are followed by Muslims is subject to the following requirements: he must be a man, of legal age, of sound mind, a Shia (follower of the twelve imams), lawfully born, and, according to the obligatory measure, fair and alive. Justice in this case means an inner state of godliness, which prevents a person from committing major sins and helps avoid the repetition of minor sins.

A person’s coming of age is determined by one of the following three signs:

First: The boy reaches the age of 15 full lunar years. A girl reaching the age of 9 full lunar years.

Second: Sperm release.

The third: The appearance of hard hair on the pubis.

A solar year is 11 days longer than a lunar year. Therefore, calculating according to the lunar calendar, boys come of age at approximately 14 years, 6 months and 20 days. Girls come of age at approximately 8 years, 8 months and 25 days.

Rule 4 – If several religious jurists have different opinions on the same matter, then the guidance of the most competent of them must be followed.

Clause 5 – A religious jurist and the most competent religious jurist can be determined in three ways:

The first way: A person himself has a sufficient level of knowledge in Sharia sciences, and can independently determine a religious jurist and the most competent religious jurist.

The second way: The testimony of two fair scholars possessing the appropriate level of knowledge, provided that the other two scholars do not testify to the contrary.

The third way: The popularity of a religious jurist among people of science and in scientific circles, which convinces a person that this religious jurist is the most competent jurist.

Clause 6 – In the event that it is impossible to determine the most competent religious jurist, it is necessary, according to the mandatory measure, to follow the instructions of the jurist who is presumed to be the most competent. If a person is in doubt between several religious jurists and cannot give his preference to any of them, then he can follow the instructions of any of them.

Rule 7 – There are several ways to find out about the “fatwa” of a religious jurist, that is, about his decision and instructions on any issue:

The first way: To hear the instruction directly from the religious jurist himself, or to see the instruction written by him in his own hand.

The second way: To see the guidance of a religious jurist in a collection of religious instructions, the authenticity of which there is not the slightest doubt.

The third way: To hear guidance from a trustworthy person.

The fourth way: The popularity of a religious instruction among people, which is a sign of its authenticity.